That device won't work on 3.5" HDD drives because USB-A doesn't have the 12v rail those drives need.
USB-C has various ways of delivering higher power, but not USB-A.
The solution is an external power supply or something with USB-C with a PD specification.
The System76 Tall Meerkat checks most of the boxes, except the fan:
10th gen Intel Core i3
up to 2*32GB of RAM (max 2666mhz because of intel cpu)
WIFI can be turned off
ships with Ubuntu or POP OS
its not fanless, but has a quiet mode in the bios. But its pretty hard to do passive cooling on a small pc