Purism Librem 5 runs a custom distro developed by the company which made the phone, but you can run it on desktop as well, so I believe it qualifies.
As a bonus, recently the open source GPU driver for that chip has reached performance parity with the closed source one, although I am not sure which one is used in the phone.
Not recommending a specific laptop (at least not at this stage anyway) but a couple of points, nevertheless:
Do not get one with a Broadcom wireless chipset - you won't be getting it to work with Linux without a lot of difficulty (involving NDIS wrappers, if even then). Avoid them like the plague and make sure you get one with an Intel wifi chipset.
I used ...
I'll second the recommendation for the Thinkpads—you might even be able to grab a T or X series within your budget depending on launch offers—but since you mentioned Linux, I thought it would be remiss not to mention there are a couple of 4800H laptops with options for Linux preinstalled, no OS or even no storage, including the Schenker VIA Pro, the Tuxedo ...
In general, since the AMD "Zen 2" CPUs came out with great performance and decent prices, I would recommend any laptop with a Ryzen™ Mobile 4000 Series Processor and 16GB of RAM. Since these are new models that came out this year, peripherals are mostly up to date and not to worry about.
Let me explain based on every requirment you posted.
You will find what you are looking for listed as a USB DAC (Digital to Analog Converter) even though technically, toslink is not analog and you may not need the DAC functionality for your purpose.
There is a long list on amazon. This one claims to be Plug-and-play and need no drivers.
$14.95 will get you this:
It has a plug & play Grove connector, so you can easily add on GPS for a further $12.
If you can live without GPS, or can solder, then I also recommend LilyGo.
They have a slim wristband, like an activity tracker for about $20:
and a wristwatch with a larger screen for about $25:
All three of these are ESP32 based, so have ...
From the criteria you posted, I think laptop with minimum MX250 graphic card would be sufficient for you. MX250 is not as good as GTX1050 but still better than AMD APU. Since you want to replace the SSD\HDD, I assumed that you need a laptop with expandable storage also. You can try to look for DELL inspiron 14 5000 series. I think it will meet your criteria ...
I'd also suggest a used Thinkpad. Specifically the X series of Thinkpads if you want a laptop on the smaller EEE PC end of the spectrum.
I'd recommend looking at models from the X220 onward. The X220 though, is a firm favourite in the community for a number of reasons. It was the last X series Thinkpad to come with the old style (and almost universally said ...