Products like this seem to exist in the market - which are bluetooth enabled weighing scales.
Well yes, but actually no
From a software standpoint, I personally think the polish for Bluetooth location trackers has reached a point that it can be considered mature enough for "everyday" use. I personally don't have a ton of experience with them, but from what I have done and do know, they're in a good place.
The real problem is that all of these ...
Most wearables have this functionality. The Charge 3 performs this function well. It will vibrate when the phone rings and show you who is calling and when you get a text. It has good range over Bluetooth. If you are willing to spend more, you can get more features from a Samsung or Apple smart watch.
Based on the information and drawings on the link you've provided, it appears that the USB port is supplying power and very likely power only. The double-ended cables provide for audio source/destination for the bluetooth aspect of the device.
This means the answer to your question is quite likely NO.
A quick search discovers a product available that ...