I was able to find a Neewer NW-700 ($27) condenser mic that comes with a shock mount and XLR-to-3.5mm cable. I've read that this will most likely require external power because the 3.5mm connection won't do by itself. However, if you're getting into podcasting, you'll want to look into an audio interface and things like that.
An alternative to this is a ...
The Samson Meteorite is pretty good, for its price.
Very limited hiss at all. In fact, at high levels, you're more likely to get the environmental noise recorded than any hiss.
It's a USB mic, so it should work with your laptop with minimal setup (requires driver installation, as do most peripherals)
It's a condenser mic, which is good for voice recordings.
I'd also recommend a Samson company.
If you don't have a problem with buying second-hand items, you can get a Samson Go Mic for less than $30 or buy a brand new one for $38 from amazon.
Portable USB condenser microphone
Plug and Play
Useful clip (you don't have to buy another accessory to keep it in a place)
"Natural" sound (perfect for podcasts) ...
For that price you won't be able to get anything too great, but there are a few options still. I'll recommend the same mic I recommended to @JonasCz here a while back: the Tonor USB Condenser Mic. For being a small, cheap mic, it has great quality.
Sensitivity: -55dB to 2dB
Frequency response: 50Hz to 16KHz
Sound-noise ratio: >36dB
Since you modified your requirements, I am posting an answer, in case someone needs the first answer for the old requirements. What you would need is, a recording mixer. And unfortunately, those are simply not optimized for being cheap. If you needed to replace your mixer, then it would not be a big price difference to simply buy one that does recording ...
A simple search for "stereo recorders" turned out plenty of results, such as Tascam DR-05. It has two unidirectional audio microphones, pointed to the left and to the right, which makes it work really well. Also, it supports (and includes) an SD card.
In terms of getting standardized performance out of your IDE drive, the best advice I can give you is to add an IDE controller card to your PC so that you can get a direct IDE to bus connection going over the PCI or PCI-E interface. I've had bad luck getting SATA > IDE adapters to work and would not recommend them.
The big problem here is that an IDE ...
There's a vibrant market for these "digital audio recorders" (also often called "digital voice recorders"). Here's a Best Reviews description of the current market.
E.g., the EVISTR L36 appears to check all your boxes.
(Note that the marginal cost of the mics can be negligible, so you probably won't find a DVR without one.)