Is there currently a 2 TB or greater laptop HDD that can attain 7200 RPM or more? If there's more than one, which of them would be the fastest or most reliable?
Yes, but don't get one if you can avoid it.
There are only two HDDs that fit the requirements you have: the Seagate ST2000NX0253 and the ST2000NX0303. At ~$300 each, these things are ridiculously expensive; you're looking at SSD tier pricing for a spinning drive.
My recommendation would be to instead get a cheaper 5400RPM drive–my recommendation goes to the Seagate ST2000LM015 (currently $71.99) because of the reasonably large cache and Seagate's relatively solid reputation–and then set aside some SSD space as a cache, depending on the write endurance of your drive and OS/platform.