Honestly, the answer here is "it depends". While your concern about linux is reasonable, the simple reality is that most laptops are going to offer basically the same performance for the same hardware. I.e., my Dell XPS 15 9520 (2022 model) with a 12700h, 64 GB of Ram, 6TB of SSD space, and a 3050 ti is going to run about the same as any other laptop with those specs.
Coding in and of itself isn't particularly demanding. Unless you are doing advanced coding that requires highly parallelized processes that would utilize high core counts, an i5 would likely suffice and and i7 would be a bit more leg room in terms of performance. However, if you're also going to be running a VM on your laptop in order to run a linux distro, you might consider going i7 or i9 (or Ryzen 7 or 9). Peronally, I would avoid going with Apple as they are rather expensive, their compatability is limited (though you would know if the programs you need work on apple), and there is absolutely no upgrade path.
With most windows machines you will be able to upgrade RAM and SSD storage to increase your abilities later. You would likely not have any need for a high end GPU if all you're doing is coding (again, you owuld know if your case is an exception). As such my two primary suggestions would be to either look into a Dell XPS 15 as the build quality is great and the keyboard is amazing, or look into a company called Framework. Not only do they sell laptops with high end CPUs without the high end GPU to jack up prices, virtally every aspect of it is user repairable and upgradable. You can upgrade your ram, storage, monitor, and even the mainboard (I do not believe that the CPU can be replaced without replacing the mainboard tho). And, if you decide you want a GPU or more storage or more battery life, the most recent models allow for an external module to be attached to the rear of the laptop to expand capabilities.
You could also get a last gen laptop in this range for a bit less (a 12th gen i7 is what I have).
Your budget will dictate what you're likely to be able to get, but its likely that a current gen i7 or R7 will last you a few years at minimum.
The recommendation for a workstation laptop is not something I would endorse as they are generally intended for computer modeling and graphical rendering and would be overkill and a waste of money.
Beyond this (and the primary reason why I have abstained from recommending specific brands or models (except hte dell as I can speak to its quality and features) is that the main differences between models and brands is the accessory features such as cameras, I/0, deck flex, monitor specs, etc and those are generally up to personal preference. Like for me, I pefer Dell's lack of USB-A ports and the presence of the SD card reader. You may not care as much. You're going to have to shop around a bit to find a laptop with the ports and stuff that you like/need, but ASUS, Dell, Razor (kind of overkill), Framework, all make decent laptops. The other "gaming" brands like gigabyte and MSI, to my knowledge, focus solely on gaming laptops, but you don't have a need for the GPU (unless you want to be able to game or do other graphic intensive work).