TL;DR: I don't think what you are looking for exists; And if it does it still won't work for your Samsung drive.
USB can support communication with pretty much any device as long as that device implements the USB protocol and the host PC has a driver to go with it. There are all kinds of devices out there that connect SATA drives to USB ports by wrapping the SATA drive messages inside the USB messages. (See UASP)
SATA is an entirely different kind of data bus that is highly specialized for storage devices. The messages being sent out of the eSATA port on that laptop are in a language that USB devices don't understand or expect to receive over the wire. Also, there is no such thing like a "USB message wrapped in a SATA message", so USB clients can never be connected to a SATA port.
If an adapter like this existed it would be very complex and probably introduce a lot of opportunities for data corruption. It would have to emulate what the device on each end expects and convert the content of the messages between the two protocols.
- It would have to act like a USB host for the hard drive's side and therefore need something like an embedded OS or special chipset to do that.
- It would have to act like a SATA storage device for the computer's side and therefore it could only relay SATA messages to the actual storage device. That would constrain this adapter to only supporting USB drives that have UASP support.
In the end, even if the adapter did exist, you're trying to connect a drive that doesn't even use SATA! (The Samsung T7 uses NVMe storage technology)