There are many kind of LED strips, however, if you work with Raspberry (or any MCU), I guess you want to use addressable led strips (like WS2811, WS2812, WS2813).
The reason is that you can switch on the Red/Green/Blue color of each LED separately.
If you don't want that, use non addressable LED strips (of course these are cheaper).
The difference between WS2811, WS2812, WS2813 is (among others) the fact that if one LED is broken, the remainder of the strip still works.
Also there are LED strips who can handle water/liquid slightly better (for outdoor use).
Some differences (from Differences):
- WS2811 is the old version with external IC , it often made to DC12v addressable strip light, has only one signal too but it is mature for many years.
- WS2812B LED strip has only one data signal when one pixel dies, the signal cannot pass through,
- WS2813 digital LED strip, you can see as updated version of WS2811 addressable LED strip, it has double signals even one signal is broken, others can still work well, because the signal can pass through,
(Update after remark from Arseni below):
Except for a led strip you also need:
- A microcontroller (to control it), if you have an addressable led strip
- A library (at least for 'beginners' to be able to control it, for the microcontroller you use
- Your own code, to let the program make the colors you want, and when
- An external power source, if you have more than a few LEDs (not LED strips, but separate LEDs), you need an external power source that is strong enough.
- For some (older) LED strips you might need a resistor, on newer types it's built in; same for a capacitor.